Bid rigging

Particular form of coordination between firms which can adversely affect the outcome of any sale or purchasing process in which bids are submitted. For example, firms may agree their bids in advance, deciding which firm will be the lowest bidder. Alternatively, they...

Black clause

See: Hard-core restrictions Source: Glossary of terms used in EU competition policy, Antitrust and control of concentrations, European Commission, 2002

Block exemption

Regulation issued by the Commission or by the Council pursuant to Article 101(3) of the EC Treaty, specifying the conditions under which certain types of agreements are exempted from the prohibition on restrictive agreements laid down in Article 101(1) of the EC...

Buyer power

Ability of one or more buyers, based on their economic importance on the market in question, to obtain favourable purchasing terms from their suppliers. Buyer power is an important aspect in competi- tion analysis, since powerful buyers may discipline the pricing...