Fine

A monetary penalty imposed by a Commission decision on an under- taking, for a violation of EC competition rules. Source: Glossary of terms used in EU competition policy, Antitrust and control of concentrations, European Commission, 2002

Fixed costs

Costs that do not vary with the amount of goods or services produced. Examples include interest payments on accumulated debt, property taxes and rent. Source: Glossary of terms used in EU competition policy, Antitrust and control of concentrations, European...

Foreclosure

Strategic behaviour by a firm or group of firms to restrict market access possibilities of potential competitors either upstream or downstream. Foreclosure can take different forms, from absolute refusal to deal to more subtle forms of discrimination such as the...

Franchising

A special type of agreemeFnt whereby one undertaking (the fran- chiser) grants to the other (the franchisee), in exchange for direct or indirect financial consideration, the right to exploit a package of industrial or intellectual property rights (franchise) for the...